Screening Tests For Prostate Cancer
Screening is testing to find cancer in people before they have symptoms. Its not clear, however, if the benefits of prostate cancer screening outweigh the risks for most men. Still, after discussing the pros and cons of screening with their doctors, some men might reasonably choose to be screened.
The screening tests discussed here are used to look for possible signs of prostate cancer. But these tests cant tell for sure if you have cancer. If the result of one of these tests is abnormal, you will probably need a prostate biopsy to know for sure if you have cancer.
What Should I Avoid Before A Psa Test
Can I work out before I take a PSA test?
While physical activity in general might help maintain a normal prostate, avoid heavy exercise directly before your PSA. Avoid exercise for a few days before your PSA test. Even bicycling, riding motorcycles or ATVs, or riding horses have been shown to elevate PSA slightly for a short period of time..
Can I have sex before I take a PSA test?
No. You should abstain from sexual activity – anything that includes ejaculation – for at least 48 hours before the test. A recent ejaculation might cause a slight rise in PSA levels.
What about supplements and medications?
The following supplements or medications may have an affect on your PSA levels and should be discussed with your doctor. They may raise or lower your PSA and might not create a reliable test result:
- Chemotherapy drugs
- Carninte, fenugreek, pomegranate, saw palmetto, the herb PC-SPES, lycopene, and phytoestrogens.
Can alcohol or coffee consumption skew results?
Alcohol and caffeinated drinks are not established risk factors for prostate cancer and will not affect PSA levels. However, it is understood that heavy alcohol drinking could cause a small risk of more aggressive forms of prostate cancer. The bottom line here is that alcohol, caffeine and smoking do not cause false-positive elevations of PSA levels.
I have a urinary infection, is that a problem?
How Do You Prepare For A Psa Test
You do not need to fast from food or drink before taking a PSA test. There are currently no foods or beverages to avoid before taking a PSA test. While some foods might be linked to prostate conditions, no scientific evidence links the consumption of one food to elevated PSA levels. There is no need to avoid certain foods, coffee or alcohol before taking a PSA test.
You May Like: Does Intermittent Fasting Help Burn Fat
In Men Over : Bph May Be The Cause Of High Psa
Benign prostatic hyperplasia is an enlargement of the prostate gland, but its not prostate cancer. “BPH means more cells, so that means more cells making PSA,” explains Dr. Castle.
BPH is the most common prostate problem in men over age 50. It may not need to be treated unless its causing frequent or difficult urination.
Your primary care doctor may be able to tell the difference between BPH and prostate cancer by doing a digital rectal exam, but commonly this will require evaluation by a urologist and further testing, such as a biopsy or imaging studies.
Choose Healthy Protein Sources
In general, going for lean proteins, like chicken, fish, and soy or other plant-based protein, is better for overall health. These sources of protein help you to maintain a healthy weight and protect against heart disease. They can also benefit your prostate health and lower PSA levels.
Avoid fatty or processed meats and instead choose fish thats rich in omega-3s and chicken baked or grilled without the skin.
Soy, which is used to make tofu and other meat substitutes, contains isoflavones. Researchers believe these nutrients can protect against certain cancers. In fact, there is
Recommended Reading: How Many Hours Is Intermittent Fasting
Do I Need The Psa Test
The PSA test is not recommended for men who dont have symptoms of prostate cancer, as it can lead to unnecessary investigations and treatments that have serious side effects.
If you are at higher risk of developing prostate cancer, or if you have symptoms that may indicate cancer, PSA testing may be of more benefit.
Cancer Council Australia and the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners both recommend against routine screening in men without symptoms. That is because the PSA test is not very accurate for screening men without symptoms. High PSA levels can be due to many things, and cancer is just one of them. And a man with prostate cancer can have a normal PSA level.
As there is a range of risks and potential benefits of PSA testing, talk to your doctor to help make an informed decision.
What Is A Psa Test
Prostate-specific antigen is a protein produced by the prostate gland that is present in small quantities in all men’s blood. It often is elevated in the presence of prostate cancer, making a man’s PSA levels a useful tool for early prostate cancer detection.
The PSA blood test was developed at Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center in the 1970s and is now in use worldwide. Since the test was first introduced, the cure rate for prostate cancer has increased from about 4% to 80%. Here are some answers to the frequently asked questions we receive from men preparing for their first PSA exam.
Recommended Reading: Can You Do Keto And Intermittent Fasting
How To Lower Prostatespecific Antigens
This article was medically reviewed by Luba Lee, FNP-BC, MS. Luba Lee, FNP-BC is a board certified Family Nurse Practitioner and educator in Tennessee with over a decade of clinical experience. Luba has certifications in Pediatric Advanced Life Support , Emergency Medicine, Advanced Cardiac Life Support , Team Building, and Critical Care Nursing. She received her Master of Science in Nursing from the University of Tennessee in 2006.There are 11 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page.wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. In this case, 92% of readers who voted found the article helpful, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 181,196 times.
Who Should Get A Psa Test
The current US Preventive Services Task Force states that men of an average risk of prostate cancer between the ages of 55-69 should consider being screened using a PSA test. However, other individuals at a higher risk might want to be considered for earlier screening including:
- Those who might be overweight
- Older men – those over 65 – as PSA rises over time, starting at age 50
- Those with a family history of prostate cancer
- African American men
- Those living a sedentary lifestyle, or those who eat an unhealthy diet
To learn more about screening for prostate cancer, visit Prostate Conditions Education Council.
Recommended Reading: Can Water Fasting Help You Lose Weight
What The Body Does When Theres No Food Coming In
When we consume a Western diet, typically high in processed foods, our bodies get plenty of sugars and starches to convert to glucose. Glucose is what the body then metabolizes for energy. This constant supply of easy energy is not good for us because it throws off our metabolic balance. At worst, we develop chronically elevated blood sugar, insulin resistance, and inflammatory agents. This has led to an epidemic of conditions characterized by metabolic disturbances, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome , and diabetes mellitus type 2. In addition, low levels of chronic inflammation set up precursor conditions for many types of cancer, including prostate cancer.
What Is A Normal Psa Value
A PSA level between 2.5 and 4 ng/mL is considered a normal PSA level for most men, but this depends on many factors, such as the patients age, prostate size and a variety of patient activities . A PSA level greater than 4 ng/mL may be normal for some men. A physician must interpret whether the PSA level is normal for each individual.
Don’t Miss: What Time Does Fasting Start
What Could Cause High Psa Levels
Before we talk about how to lower PSA levels, it is important to know whats affecting the total PSA score. Other than cancer, ailments like an enlarged prostate and prostatitis can raise the PSA level.
Plus, the PSA raises with age, recent orgasm, and urinary tract infection. An injury to the groin either from an impact or fall can spike PSA levels for a short time. The high PSA could also be the result of parathyroid hormone and surgical procedures.
When there is trauma around the prostate gland, the PSA spikes on any PSA blood test. Since it takes 2 to 3 days for PSA to drop by 50%, patients should wait for 2 to 3 weeks to do another PSA screening. These are all factors that can skew a PSA test.
The PSA on its own is not enough to determine the state of your prostate. Thats why a healthcare practitioner will take a look at your PSA test result alongside other factors. Such as a digital rectal exam, genes, age, and so on.
If the PSA screening comes out with abnormalities together with a diagnostic test, like rectal examination, then the doctor could suggest a prostate biopsy.
This is to verify the presence of prostate cancer. As you can see, the elevated PSA could mean many things. Cancer is just one of them.
A study shows that 15 out of 100 older male patients with normal PSA actually have prostate cancer. This can be very problematic for people whove done a PSA test.
Add Some Pomegranate To Your Diet
Whether you enjoy pomegranate juice, the tasty pulp and seeds, or prefer the supplement, be sure to include this fruit in your diet more often. Research at Johns Hopkins has shown that this phytonutrient-rich fruit can reduce the rate of PSA doubling in men who have prostate cancer. Overall, the doubling time increased from 11.9 months at baseline to 18.5 months after treatment with pomegranate extract. Since pomegranate is rich in sugar, taking a supplement may be better than having the fruit on a regular basis.
You May Like: What Should I Eat When Fasting For 16 8
What Do Psa Test Results Mean
- PSA test results are typically reported as nanograms of PSA per milliliter of blood.
- There is no specific normal or abnormal PSA level in the blood.
- In the past, a level of 4.0 ng/mL was considered as the upper limit of normal, but a patient with a normal PSA may still have cancer, and elevated PSA levels can be produced by a normal prostate gland.
Try Quercetin And Pollen
Both quercetin and pollen have demonstrated properties that promote and support prostate health, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant abilities, especially in the management of the inflammatory condition known as prostatitis. In addition, a new study in Urology looked at the effect of an anti-inflammatory combination taken daily for three months by men with PSA values of 7.2 ng/mL or 7.3 ng/mL at baseline. By the end of the study, the combination had effectively and safely reduced PSA levels from 7.3 ng/mL to 4.6 ng/mL among men who had prostate inflammation. Both quercetin and pollen can be taken separately, but they also can be found together in supplement formulas designed to support prostate health.
You May Like: What To Do Intermittent Fasting
Medical Procedures Can Cause Psa To Rise
“Anything that traumatically interferes with the architecture around the prostate gland can make PSA go up,” says Dr. Milner. “One of the most common causes of significantly high PSA from this type of trauma is the placing of a catheter into the bladder.”
Another cause is a prostate or bladder exam that involves passing a scope or taking a biopsy.
“Since it takes about two to three days for PSA to go down by half, you should wait two to three weeks after this type of trauma to do a PSA test,” Milner says.
Normal Psa Score Variations
Many normal variations can influence a PSA test score baseline.
Age is the biggest factor that can influence a PSA score, as the prostate gland enlargement that comes naturally with age, potentially resulting in PSA level changes.
Race also plays a role in a mans normal PSA score. Black men who dont have prostate cancer tend to have higher PSA scores than white men who dont have prostate cancer.
Weight can influence a PSA score as well. Studies have shown men without prostate cancer with a higher body mass index have a lower PSA level. This means someone who has a higher BMI probably has a lower baseline PSA level than someone with a normal range or low BMI.
Recommended Reading: When Fasting On Keto What Can I Drink
What Causes Psa To Rise
- Prostatitis – An infected prostate occurs when the prostate becomes inflamed. Areas around the prostate also become swelled and inflamed during prostatitis, which can cause feelings of pain.
- Urinary tract infection-A urinary tract infection is an infection caused by bacteria. The bacteria, enters into the urinary tract, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra.
- Benign prostatic hyperplasia Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia occurs when the prostate, expands to twice or even three times its regular size. The growing prostate gland presses against the urethra and restricts urinary flow, resulting in lower urinary tract symptoms.
- Prostate cancer-Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer that can affect men only skin cancer is more common. It is cancer of the prostate gland, which is located between the bladder and the penis. Elevated PSA levels are significantly associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer.
- Recent sexual activity-Studies show that frequent sexual activity or a recent ejaculation can cause a mild rise in PSA. This is why men are advised not to ejaculate for 48 hours before a PSA screening test. It makes a false-positive result.
What Is A Prostate
A prostate-specific antigen test measures the level of PSA in your blood. The prostate is a small gland that is part of a man’s reproductive system. It is located below the bladder and makes a fluid that is part of semen. PSA is a substance made by the prostate. Men normally have low PSA levels in their blood. A high PSA level may be a sign of prostate cancer, the most common non-skin cancer affecting American men. But high PSA levels can also mean noncancerous prostate conditions, such as infection or benign prostatic hyperplasia, a noncancerous enlargement of the prostate.
Other names: total PSA, free PSA
Recommended Reading: What Can You Have When Intermittent Fasting
What Do The Results Mean
High PSA levels can mean cancer or a noncancerous condition such as a prostate infection, which can be treated with antibiotics. If your PSA levels are higher than normal, your health care provider will probably order more tests, including:
- A rectal exam. For this test, your health care provider will insert a gloved finger into your rectum to feel your prostate.
- A biopsy. This is a minor surgical procedure, where a provider will take a small sample of prostate cells for testing.
If you have questions about your results, talk to your health care provider.
Learn more about laboratory tests, reference ranges, and understanding results.
How To Lower Psa Levels Through Diet
When talking about how to lower PSA levels, diet can help.
Based on 2015 reports, prostate cancer is the primary cause of mortality in American men. The prevalence of this cancer keeps rising all around the globe. Particularly in regions that focus on eating a western-style diet.
Plenty of studies indicate that dietary intake can affect the progression and incidence of prostate cancer. Some foods can make prostatitis worse.
To figure out how to lower PSA levels, the first step is to manage the eating pattern. With the right food choices, you can give your body a better fighting chance.
Don’t Miss: What To Eat Intermittent Fasting For Weight Loss
Commonly Used Herbal Product Lowers Psa Level In Men With Advanced Prostate Cancer Ucsf Study Finds
A popular herbal supplement used by prostate cancer patients has been found to significantly reduce prostate specific antigen levelsa protein in the blood that often indicates prostate cancerin men with advanced disease, according to a University of California, San Francisco study.
The study, one of the first of its kind to subject the herb PC-SPES to rigorous scientific scrutiny, will be published November 1 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. PC-SPES consists of extracts from eight different Chinese herbs. It is sold commercially at some health food stores.
My belief is people approach complementary medicine in two ways. They either accept it without critical thought simply because its alternative, or they reject it without critical thought because its alternative, said Eric Small, MD, study lead author and UCSF associate clinical professor of medicine. Either way, its all opinion. We wanted to study PC-SPES and hold it to the same standard as we would any other new drug. This is the first attempt to study this herb in a scientifically methodical way.
In the men with hormone independent disease, 19 men, or about 50 percent, had PSA declines of greater than 50 percent. Median time before PSA increased was 16 weeks. But several men in this group have not had any disease progression in more than a year of taking the herb.
We have proven that this has some activity, Small said. The next step is to sort out if this is any different from estrogen, he said.
Reduce Or Avoid Foods That Harm The Prostate
You may be surprised at how many common foods irritate the prostate and can contribute to a rise in PSA levels and an enlarged prostate. Here are some of the foods and beverages that fall into this category:
- Foods that contain acrylamide, such as French fries and potato chips and doughnuts
- And these 8 worst foods for prostrate health.
You May Like: How Much Weight Can You Lose From Water Fasting