What Is Normal Fasting Blood Sugar
Includes Diseases:Diabetes mellitus type 1
Then, what is a good blood sugar level in the morning?
What we call fasting blood sugar or blood glucose levels is usually done six to eight hours after the last meal. So it’s most commonly done before breakfast in the morning and the normal range there is 70 to 100 milligrams per deciliter.
Similarly, is fasting sugar 110 normal? Until 2003, a fasting blood glucose level under 110 mg/dl was considered to be normal and fasting blood glucose in the range of 110 to 125 mg/dl indicated impaired fasting glucose , or prediabetes. A blood glucose level 200 mg/dl or higher two hours after the drink indicates diabetes.
Secondly, what is the normal range for blood sugar?
Normal blood sugar levels are less than 100 mg/dL after not eating for at least eight hours. And they’re less than 140 mg/dL two hours after eating. During the day, levels tend to be at their lowest just before meals.
What should your blood sugar be after fasting for 12 hours?
Fasting blood glucose measures blood glucose levels after a 12– to 14-hour fast. While levels normally decrease during fasting, they remain persistently high in people with diabetes. A fasting glucose value above 125 mg/dL on at least 2 tests indicates diabetes.
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What Are Diabetic Blood Sugar Levels In Fasting
Ideally, your fasting blood sugar ranges are the same as someone without diabetes. However, if youre getting tested for diabetes, a reading of:
- 99 mg/dL or lower is normal
- 100 to 125 mg/dL indicates prediabetes
- 126 or higher indicates you have diabetes
If youre getting your blood sugar tested to determine whether or not you have prediabetes or diabetes, your doctor will likely do more than just a single fasting test. Theyll likely also do an AC1 test that measures your blood sugar levels over the past two to three months. You also may get a glucose tolerance test and a random blood sugar test.
What Affects The Test
Reasons you may not be able to have the test or why the results may not be helpful include:
- Eating or drinking less than 8 hours before a fasting blood test or less than 2 hours before a 2-hour postprandial test.
- Drinking alcohol.
- Illness or emotional stress, smoking, and caffeine.
- Taking a medicine, such as birth control pills, medicines used to treat high blood pressure, phenytoin , furosemide , triamterene, hydrochlorothiazide, niacin, propranolol , or corticosteroids . Some medicines can cause changes in your test results. Make sure that your doctor knows about any medicines you take and how often you take them.
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Fasting Vs Nonfasting Blood Sugar
Fasting blood sugar is a test that measures blood sugar and is used to determine if an individual has diabetes. When a person takes this test, they are not to eat or drink for at least eight hours prior to the test. The results determine whether or not a person is prediabetic or diabetic.
The results are measured in milligrams per deciliter or mg/dL. The following results indicate whether or not a person is prediabetic or diabetic:
- Normal: Less than 100 mg/dL
- Prediabetes: 100 mg/dL to 125 mg/dL
- Diabetes: 126 mg/dL or higher
To test nonfasting blood sugar, an A1C test is administered to determine the average blood sugar level of an individual over a period of two to three months. There is no need to fast prior to taking this test. The following results indicate whether or not a person is prediabetic or diabetic:
- Normal: 5.7%
- Diabetes: 6.5%
How It Is Done
The health professional taking a sample of your blood will:
- Wrap an elastic band around your upper arm to stop the flow of blood. This makes the veins below the band larger so it is easier to put a needle into the vein.
- Clean the needle site with alcohol.
- Put the needle into the vein. More than one needle stick may be needed.
- Attach a tube to the needle to fill it with blood.
- Remove the band from your arm when enough blood is collected.
- Apply a gauze pad or cotton ball over the needle site as the needle is removed.
- Apply pressure to the site and then a bandage.
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Da Qing Igt And Diabetes Study
In the Da Qing IGT and Diabetes Study in China, 577 patients with IGT were randomly assigned to a control group or to one of three treatment groups: diet alone, exercise alone, or diet plus exercise. Over six years of follow-up, the relative risk reduction in progression to diabetes was 31 percent in the diet group, 46 percent in the exercise group, and 42 percent in the combined group.3
A Warning Of Developing Type 2 Diabetes
Impaired fasting glycaemia is sometimes called pre-diabetes. This is when blood glucose levels in the body are raised, but are not high enough to mean that the person has diabetes. IFG means that the body isnt able to use glucose as efficiently as it should. This is because a layer of fat around the cells of the body, prevents insulin doing its job and taking the glucose into the cells of the body where its needed for energy. This situation is reversible by losing weight and hence the fat around the cells disappears. If you dont lose weight however, is it unlikely that you wont eventually develop Type 2 Diabetes.
IFG has no symptoms and can often go undiagnosed for years. Although there are no symptoms, many people diagnosed with IFG are overweight. Nine out of 10 people with IFG have high blood pressure, raised cholesterol levels or a family history of the condition.
IFG can lead to the development of type 2 diabetes. People with IFG are five to 15 times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than people with normal glucose levels. However, this isnt inevitable. You can take steps to reduce the chances of this happening. People with IFG also have a slightly increased risk of heart disease and stroke.
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What Do The Test Results Mean
- If your fasting blood glucose level is between 3.6mmol/l and 6mmol/l, this means that your blood glucose level is normal.
- If your fasting blood glucose level is 7mmol/l or higher, this is likely to mean that you have diabetes. Diabetes is a long-term condition where the body is not able to control the amount of glucose in the blood.
- If your fasting blood glucose level is between 6.1mmol/l and 6.9mmols/l, you may have IFG.
Fasting Glucose Levels Not The Best Indicator Of Diabetes Risk
Blood sugar levels at the high end of normal, coupled with other risk factors for type 2 diabetes, may help identify apparently healthy men and possibly women at increased risk of the disease. “The results suggest that a normal glucose level may have to be defined in a more individualized manner with different values, depending on a person`s additional risk factors,” said study author Dr. Amir Tirosh, an internist and researcher at the department of internal medicine at Sheba Medical Center.
“People and physicians should not look only on the current definition of normal and abnormal blood glucose levels when assessing an individuals risk to develop diabetes. A careful interpretation of the body mass index, the triglyceride level and the patient`s family history of diabetes is needed in order to better identify those at high risk,” said Tirosh.
Normal fasting blood sugar levels are considered those that fall below 99 milligrams per deciliter of blood, while anything between 100 and 125 mg/dl is considered pre-diabetic, according to the National Institute for Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Once fasting glucose levels rise to 126 mg/dl and above, a person is considered diabetic. Fasting glucose levels are taken after a person havent eaten for at least eight hours.
High triglyceride levels and a family history of the disease also increased the risk of diabetes for those with higher blood sugar levels.
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You Can Improve Fasting Glucose Levels
Lifestyle changes including weight loss and an exercise program, as well as oral medications can improve glucose tolerance and morning fasting blood sugars. Even if you only start small, it is important that you do begin to take proactive steps to adopt a healthier lifestyle.
Pre-diabetes is a wake-up call that you may be heading towards developing full-blown type 2 diabetes. Although pre-diabetes can be reversed in many cases, there is no cure for type 2 diabetes and if you do become diabetic, it is for life.
There is no cure for type 2 diabetes, but pre-diabetes can often be completely reversed with proper medical intervention and changes in lifestyle.
Pre-diabetes is similar to type 2 diabetes in that a person with pre-diabetes makes insulin, but either their body resists it, they may not make enough, or a combination of both. The differentiation between the two is really all in your blood sugar numbers, so it is important that you take pre-diabetes very seriously.
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
The OGTT is a two-hour test that checks your blood sugar levels before and two hours after you drink a special sweet drink. It tells the doctor how your body processes sugar.
- Diabetes is diagnosed at 2 hour blood sugar of greater than or equal to 200 mg/dl
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
|140 mg/dl to 199 mg/dl
|200 mg/dl or higher
The Pros And Cons Of Diagnosing Diabetes With A1c
An International Expert Committee was convened in 2008 by the American Diabetes Association , the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, and the International Diabetes Federation to consider the means for diagnosing diabetes in nonpregnant individuals, with particular focus on the possibility to indicate A1C as an alternative if not a better tool . After reviewing the available literature and a thorough discussion on the advantages and the limits of previous diagnostic strategies and the considered alternative approach , a consensus was reached that the latter should be included among diagnostic tools for diabetes and, with the exception of a number of clinical conditions, should even be preferred in diabetes diagnosis in nonpregnant adults.
What Is Fasting Blood Sugar
As the name suggests, fasting blood sugar is the amount of sugar present in your blood after fasting . During these fasting hours, you cannot eat or drink anything except water. The normal range of fasting blood sugar levels varies from 70-100mg/dl. If your blood sugar level is more than this then you may have diabetes.
Fasting sugar is preferred by doctors as it is a reliable number compared to non-fasting sugar levels. After eating different types of food, our blood sugar level fluctuates differently. So, doctors, may not get a correct picture of your blood sugar level. Your doctor may also ask for fasting sugar levels to calculate your insulin resistance.
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Measuring Blood Sugar Balance
So, as you can see, it is not as simple as looking at a single isolated blood sugar value when determining if your elevated fasting blood sugar is a reason for concern. If your blood sugar is concern to you, there are a number of other values that are actually much more helpful. These include:
Fasting Insulin: A high fasting insulin will be a sign of insulin resistance, especially accompanied by an elevated blood sugar
Hemoglobin A1C : Gives insight into blood sugar balance over the last 3 months, an elevated value would signify poor blood sugar control and potentially diabetic conditions
C-Reactive Protein: An inflammatory marker highly correlated with blood sugar, an elevated value would signify poor blood sugar balance as well as potential increased risk of several chronic diseases
HOMA-IR: This is a key measurement for understanding insulin resistance. HOMA-IR is actually a simple equation that multiplies fasting glucose by fasting insulin . This total is then divided by 405. The following ranges are then compared:
Less than 1 = Optimal Insulin Sensitivity
Above 1.9 = Early stage insulin resistance
Greater than 2.9 = Significant Insulin Resistance
Essentially, HOMA-IR looks at the relationship between insulin and glucose in your body rather than each as a separate value. I learned about the HOMA-IR and got the ideas for this graphic below from our friends at Heads Up Health.
Causes Of Impaired Fasting Glycaemia
IFG develops if your body becomes unable to control glucose levels. Your body may be unable to use insulin properly or produce less insulin. There are a number of factors that may make you more likely to develop IFG. If youre black or South Asian and over 25, or if youre white and over 40, and you have one or more of the following risk factors, then you may be at risk of IFG:
- one of your parents, brother or sister has type 2 diabetes
- youre overweight or you carry extra weight around your middle rather than your hips and thighs
- you have high blood pressure or you have had a heart attack or stroke
- you have polycystic ovary syndrome and you are overweight
- you have had diabetes during pregnancy
- you have severe mental health problems
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Official Fasting Blood Sugar Ada Recommendation For Someone With Diabetes
The American Diabetes Association recommends a fasting blood sugar target of 80 to 130 mg/dl for most nonpregnant adults with diabetes. However, the fasting blood sugar target may need to be individualized for certain people based on such factors as duration of diabetes, age and life expectancy, cognitive status, other health conditions, cardiovascular complications, and hypoglycemia unawareness. Its important that people with diabetes discuss their target blood sugar goals with their healthcare provider.
Causes Related To Personal Health
This condition occurs when the cells in your muscles, fat, and liver are unable to use the glucose in your bloodstream for energy. Your pancreas responds to this increase in glucose by producing more insulin to help your body process it. This excess amount of insulin in the bloodstream can eventually cause your body to lose insulin sensitivity or build resistance to it, leading to higher blood glucose levels.
Bodyweight and body fat
Research connects being overweight and having a higher body fat percentage with high blood glucose levels. In fact, a high body fat percentage might be a clearer indicator of high blood sugar and diabetes than weight or body mass index .
Other health conditions
Certain conditions could make you more likely to have high blood glucose. These include CushingÃ¢s disease, polycystic ovarian syndrome , and gestational diabetes. Blood glucose may also rise as the result of common illnesses like a head cold or the flu.
It isnÃ¢t just stress and sleep that can cause fluctuations in hormones. Illness, physical pain and trauma, menopause or menstruation can as well. In any of these instances, your blood glucose levels may rise due to the changes in your hormone levels.
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Biological Variability Of A1c Is Lower Than That For Fpg
When the same subjects have two assessments of the available glucose-related parameters, the correlation is stronger among the individual A1C measurements than among the FPG or 2-h PG measurements. The coefficients of variation of A1C, FPG, and 2-h PG are 3.6, 5.7, and 16.6%, respectively . This reflects of course both biological and analytical variability. However, although the latter was similar for A1C and FPG , biological variability of A1C was severalfold lower than that of FPG . This finding confirms that the two required assessments of FPG to diagnose diabetes can provide quite unreliable information, whereas A1C, especially if measured twice as recommended, provides more robust clinical information.
Using The Same Biomarker For Diagnosing And Monitoring Diabetes Might Be An Advantage
A1C is used to monitor diabetes and to establish the degree of metabolic control. Deviation from individualized A1C targets prompts physicians to modify treatment strategies with lifestyle intervention and/or drug titration or changes. The use of A1C for diagnosing diabetes has the advantage that, in subjects with A1C 6.5% , baseline A1C is already measured and deviation from target is immediately available . In subjects with A1C of 6.006.49% , an effective prevention strategy can be immediately undertaken with the awareness that a single A1C is definitely more reliable than a single FPG to stratify the risk of the disease. Yet, in subjects with A1C of 5.505.99% plus other diabetes risk factors , counseling can be immediately offered because diabetes risk is substantial, and single A1C assessment is definitely more reliable than single FPG to capture chronically high-normal glucose levels.
Pertinent to this issue is the firm belief that the implementation of the standardization of A1C assay would proceed more rapidly worldwide if A1C were to also be used for diagnosing diabetes. A1C assessment is crucial for diabetes monitoring, and establishing the individual A1C target definitely requires that the parameter is International Federation of Clinical Chemistry standardized and DCCT aligned. In fact, the A1C target and the deviation from it in the single patient remain totally uncertain when the laboratory provides A1C data that are not aligned to standard.